This niche is closely related to other specialties such as lifestyle & documentary photography, but it differs in a major way. Typically subjects are strangers who you just happen across out and about, not models or clients hired for the job. There are two methods street photographers usually take: conspicuous & covert.
Fearlessness is a must when going this route. Much like asking someone out, the photographer must be prepared for the chance of rejection. A help would be to compliment the person, tell them you’re working on a project, and/or have a business card ready to hand over with your email so they have a way to reach out and ask about the photo (then concurrently, you will have a way to send it to them.) You have a chance to guide this individual and if they’re willing, they can even do different poses for you.
This is the method I go for because talking to strangers is still nerve racking to me. Stealth is a key skill with this route. Blending in with your surroundings, or going to an already bustling area where people are focused on what they’re doing will yield more results than a very quiet place where you’d stand out. Using a trusty Jedi mind trick would be very beneficial here too.
Depending on the location and how people seem to be going about their business, one method may be preferable to another.
Subject matter should also be taken into account when taking street photographs. Are you currently travelling to a new place? Is this an annual festival you participate in? Are you just walking down the sidewalk in your home town? Though people are my main focus most times, I also enjoy capturing interesting architecture or even nice landscapes. If you find that people add to the strength of the image, feel free to work them into the composition as well.
So there you have it. A couple of tips to keep in mind when out in the world taking candid photos.
May the light be with you.